In recent years an increase in the consumption of edible mushrooms has been observed. In many countries mushrooms have been a popular delicacy, as they add flavor and texture to a meal. Mushrooms are able to accumulate both primary and secondary metabolites. Some of them may play an antioxidant role, e.g. phenolic and indole compounds, flavonoids, terpenoids, sterols, ascorbic acid, ergothioneine and carotenoids and are a source of elements, e.g. selenium. Indole compounds fulfill the role of neurotransmitters or their precursors, exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging actions, regulate the diurnal cycle in humans and take part in blood coagulation. Biologically and therapeutically active metabolites of fungi are used to treat such serious diseases as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. The intake of mushrooms clearly has a cholesterol-lowering effect or hypocholesterolemic effect by different mechanisms such as decreasing VLDL, improving lipid metabolism, inhibiting of activity of HMG-CoA reductase, and consequently preventing the development of atherosclerosis. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds occurring in mushrooms also may contribute to reduce the atherosclerosis risk.