Medicina Internacia Revuo <p><strong><em>Medicina Internacia Revuo</em></strong> is an international journal with a long tradition – going back to 1923. It is an official forum of the Universala Medicina Esperanto Asocio for communicating results and ideas in medical science. The journal publishes reviews, original research papers and expert commentaries within a wide range of topics in pharmaceutical and health sciences. Published articles are written in congress languages with English and Esperanto abstracts.&nbsp;The journal&nbsp;is published twice a year in paper and electronic versions.</p> ZOZ Ośrodek UMEA SHINODA KURACEJO, Jagiellonian University in Kraków Faculty of Pharmacy en-US Medicina Internacia Revuo 0465-5435 Mycelial cultures as a model to study the accumulation of medicinal compounds – historical perspective <p>Mycelial culture is a compilation of techniques used to maintain or grow mycelium under sterile conditions on a medium of known composition. This method is frequently used in fungal biotechnology. This review article describes the methodology of biotechnological processes using cultures of higher fungi, e.g. initialization of mycelial cultures, types of media used in <em>in vitro</em> cultures of higher fungi, types of mycelial cultures, and culture conditions. In addition, this paper describes selected biologically active compounds produced by mycelium obtained <em>in vitro</em>. Furthermore, the research on mycelial cultures conducted at the Department of Pharmaceutical Botany at the Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum in Krakow is presented from a historical perspective.</p> Monika Trepa Katarzyna Jolanta Sułkowska-Ziaja Katarzyna Kała Bożena Muszyńska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 30 119 50 63 The possibilities of using craniosacral osteopathy after head injuries in kickboxing practitioners. <p style="font-weight: 400;">Osteopathic medicine constitutes a new branch of medicine, dealing with a man as indivisible organism. The human body is treated as a whole and has a mechanism of self-regulation and also the structures and functions that are highly dependent on each other, creating a balanced mechanism for mutual support. Described in the article craniosacral approach used in neurotherapy is especially important, mainly because of the small number of contraindications and ability to use even in the case of patient in coma. The paper presents the research and selected examples of techniques and osteopathic therapy, so that this medicinal form was brought closer to the reader. It was also emphasized that only an experienced osteopath, constantly supplementing related to this area knowledge, is able to efficiently and correctly follow the form of treatment. Kickboxing is associated with frequent and repeated micro-injuries of the head, which give a variety of ailments in the treatment of which cranio-sacral therapy turns out to be effective.</p> Grzegorz Włodzimierz Mańko Monika Feliksik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 30 119 64 75 Interrelations of body composition and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Background:</em> Interrelations of body composition and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important, since low body mass index (BMI) and muscle atrophy are basic factors of low exercise capacity and have reliable predictive value of the progressing disease. The aim of our study was to assess how body composition affects the quality of life, exercise capacity and respiratory function of COPD patients</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Methods:</em> We performed body composition measurements on 120 COPD patients of the National Koranyi Institute for Pulmonology in Budapest between February 1, 2019 and February 1, 2020, using OMRON Healthcare BF511 body composition analyser. The disease-specific COPD Assessment Test (CAT) questionnaire measured the quality of life; respiratory function and anthropometric data were extracted from the electronic health record system.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Results:</em> Underweight patients (10.8%) were less work loading (6MWD (m) 250 vs. 320; p=0.098) and had significantly lower quality of life (CAT: 32 (29-36) vs. 28 (23.5-30) vs. 24 (16-30); p=0.004), than normal or overweight patients. Those with higher body fat percentage (women: 36-42%, men: 25-30%) had better lung function (FEV<sub>1</sub>) and significantly better quality of life (CAT). Muscle percentage correlated also significantly with 6-minute walking distance (6MWD: ρ=0.514; p &lt;0.001) and quality of life (CAT: ρ=-0.344; p &lt;0.001).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Conclusions:</em> Our results suggest that measurement and assessment of body composition is useful in managing COPD patients and should routinely be performed during therapy, thus we propose to add body composition assessment to the COPD severity assessment (BODE index).</p> Monika Fekete Judit Pako Katalin Csicsely Katalin Toth Monika Szabo Dorottya Horvath Peter Balazs Judit Forrai Vince Fazekas-Pongor Gergo Szollosi Janos Tamas Varga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 30 119 76 85 Leukocyte and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (LPRF) Therapy & Leprosy: <p>This paper discusses the potential of Leukocyte and Platelet-Rich Fibrin Therapy (LPRF) to help treat ulcers and skin damage associated with leprosy. It warns that although LPRF may be a valuable and cost-effective treatment, it is crucial to understand potential resistance to haematologically based treatments. For physicians and health service staff operating within a biomedical paradigm, folk beliefs resisting such treatments may be inconsequential. However, research and education among marginalised and excluded populations is vital to overcome potential hesitancy and resistance to such treatments.</p> Frank Houghton Margaret Moran Stritch Krishna Tamang Michael Winterburn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 30 119 86 91 A child with Otitic Hydrocephalus <p>Acute otitis media (AOM) is a widespread disease which may lead to extra- and intracranial complications. Intracranial complications of AOM are currently still potentially health and life threatening even with proper treatment. Otitic hydrocephalus is a rare intracranial complication of otitis media. It is characterized by elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure with normal CSF biochemistry and without any focal neurologic abnormality other than those related to the increased intracranial pressure. The precise mechanism underlying the development of otitic hydrocephalus is unknown. Eradication of ear disease and lowering of the elevated intracranial pressure are the goals of the therapy. The authors of this essay will introduce a 7 years old boy with otitic hydrocephalus and review the literature. It can be concluded that, in patients with acute or chronic ear infections, complaints of headache, blurred vision, diplopia, or photophobia may be a heralding sign of an intracranial complication. On the other hand, MRI is very important for detection of the complications of otitis media. Contrast-enhanced MRI and magnetic resonance venography must be immediately performed in patients with neurological symptoms such as nerve palsy, neck stiffness, or confusion.</p> Mohammadreza Abdolsalehi Mahsa Khezri Elmira Haji Esmaeil Memar Mahya Ghahremanloo Mahsa Khezri Sara Zamani Fatemeh Jalali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 30 119 92 97 Life style and structure differences between species of freshwater fish <p><span lang="EN-US">It has been recommended that people eat fish rich in unsaturated fats at least twice a week to reduce the risk of heart disease. Fish consumption is significant, mainly from fish living in ocean saltwater. However, in countries without sea like Hungary, the richness of freshwater fish has developed a wide range of cooking techniques for fish with different nutrition. We suspect that muscle structure differences have not yet been investigated. The difference in fatty acid composition of African catfish and Siberian sturgeon is known, but no morphological studies have been performed on their muscle structure. The aim of this study was to compare the structure differences between freshwater fish with different lifestyles. The organization of muscle structure was monitored in meat by means of cytochemistry combined with scanning electron microscopic studies on tissues of two different species, and the techno-functional parameters measured. The filleted muscles of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were compared after fresh and fast freeze. The associated complex structure of muscle in both species appeared different. One is a tightly closed muscle mass, while the other is a soft structure, which shows a different degree of softness of the meat after baking. In both species, the right muscle structure is beneficial under extreme environmental conditions. The different skeletal structure in fish needs altered processing, which we wish to continue with further testing and to prepare tasty food for consumers and use in dietetics.</span></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>freshwater fish, muscle tissue structure, ingredients, scanning electron microscope </strong></p> Viktoria Szuts ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 30 119 An Examination of Portrayals of Smoking in Noir Graphic/ Comic Novels <p>Global mortality from tobacco related diseases continues to rise. Most smokers start smoking in adolescence and early adulthood. Graphic novels have a particular appeal to this age group, and are increasingly read by females and males. Prior research examining a range of graphic novels had noted high rates of portrayals of smoking in noir and cyber-punk novels. This research focussed on a random sample of noir graphic novels to explore this finding in more depth. A quantitative content analysis of ten noir graphic novels was conducted. Although there was substantial variability in the number of portrayals of smoking, smoking imagery was prevalent throughout all of the novels examined. Of particular note was the high rate of portrayals of women smoking. This is an issue given the rise in smoking rates in young women and girls in some Western countries. Some examples of substitution and relegation of tobacco products was noted, and tobacco control advocates should seek to work with artists to promote omission, substitution and relegation of such imagery. Further research is suggested to explore in more depth the characterisation of smokers in such graphic novels, and the ongoing recurrence of such imagery in contemporary graphic noir novels.</p> Daisy Houghton Frank Houghton ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 30 119 107 118