Medicina Internacia Revuo <p><strong><em>Medicina Internacia Revuo</em></strong> is an international journal with a long tradition – going back to 1923. It is an official forum of the Universala Medicina Esperanto Asocio for communicating results and ideas in medical science. The journal publishes reviews, original research papers and expert commentaries within a wide range of topics in pharmaceutical and health sciences. Published articles are written in congress languages with English and Esperanto abstracts.&nbsp;The journal&nbsp;is published twice a year in paper and electronic versions.</p> en-US (Włodzimierz Opoka) (Jan Lazur) Sun, 17 Sep 2023 14:12:32 +0200 OJS 60 Prostate cancer and high specific prostate antigen levels in patients: a cross-sectional study <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> The effect of different races possess, ethnic differences, and geographical have their respective reference ranges of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The distribution of serum PSA in men without prostate cancer.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> We studied the importance of early detection of LUTS patients in whom prostate cancer was suspected in the transition area of prostate cancer through transurethral resections(TURP), in the case of negative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 63 patients undergoing TURP were evaluated of the period from July 2019 to March 2020. TRUS biopsy patients before TURP (group with cancer) and not (without cancer) were compared to the prostate detection rates. All charts, including prostate-specified antigen (PSA), digital rectal exam (DRE) results, TURP (including volume of resection and a pathology report), TRUS and TRUS biopsy results, were evaluated retrospectively.&nbsp; Ethnicity has not been recorded since Al-Najaf&nbsp; is multi-ethnic. Description statistics, statistic tables, the arithmetic medium, standard error, default and two extremes used to analyze the results.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>PSA values in different age groups were non significant difference in cancer detection rate between with&nbsp; and without biopsy groups, the PSA mean was 4.7±1.6 ng / ml and 3.4±0.8 ng / ml,&nbsp; and also IPSS&nbsp; was 10.8± 1.4 and 9.1 ± 2.65 and p&gt;0.05and while APEL(%) maen was 5.65±2.5 ng / ml and 10.5±1.35 ng / ml that significant difference between with&nbsp; and without biopsy groups and&nbsp; p&lt;0.05.,&nbsp; The detection rate for prostate cancer and PSA (p&lt;0.05) have been positively correlated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion :</strong> The results of serum PSA must be standardized by country and ethnic group. Ultimately, the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma in a particular region will increase accuracy</p> Hashim Ali Abdulameer Alsherees, Fadhil H. N. Al-Muhannak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 17 Sep 2023 14:03:12 +0200 Health care needs of Iraqi refugees presenting to the Kurdish Red Crescent clinics in the Al Hol camp during 12 months of on-going conflict: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>The Battle for Mosul began in October 2016 as the world's single largest military operation since the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In anticipation of massive displacement of Iraqi refugees, the Al-Hol camp was erected at the Iraqi-Syrian border meant to respond to the immediate needs of about 100,000 people. The Kurdish Red Crescent (KRC) in partnership with Un Ponte Per (UPP) operated two clinics in the camp, receiving over 200 patients daily.</p> <p>This study aims to describe health services utilisation, complaints, diagnoses and treatment of Iraqi war refugees in the camp and make recommendations to improve humanitarian response for these vulnerable populations.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>By means of a cross-sectional analysis of all patient data collected in two primary healthcare clinics and an emergency room in the camp between March 2017 and March 2018 are reviewed and analysed, regarding demographics, complaints at presentation, diagnoses and treatment.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Of all 148,743 patient contacts, 93,341 were individual consultations with health services provision to registered Iraqi refugees in both clinics, and 55,402 were Emergency Room encounters.</p> <p>Most frequent specific complaints (over 20%) were of respiratory origin (including infections and asthma), watery diarrhoea (8%) and urinary tract infections (7.6%). Urinary tract infections, anaemia and vaginal discharge were common among the female population. Non-communicable diseases like diabetes and arterial hypertension were frequent and consistent complaints throughout the year equally in male and female adults. Skin diseases included over 700 cases of leishmaniosis, mainly in the older population and in the first months. Mental health disorders remained under detected and 44% of diagnoses were categorised as unknown or “other”. There were 302 live births, and the highest Crude Mortality Rate (0.21) was in week 33.</p> <p>Emergency treatment included nebulisations, dressings, injections, suturing, splinting, and stabilization prior to referral to more advanced care outside the camp.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>Many Iraqi refugees in Al-Hol sought treatment for illnesses associated with prolonged poor living conditions, combined with seasonal variations in hostile desert climate: respiratory tract infections mainly seen in children, gastrointestinal diseases, urinary tract infections, and gender specific complaints of vaginal discharge and anaemia.</p> Karmel Carrie Garavan, Gerlant VAN BERLAER, Frank Houghton, Sherwan Bery ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 17 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Drawing it properly: an examination of smoking portrayals in texts on how to draw in the noir graphic novel/comic book style <p>Smoking remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. Therefore attention must be paid to the manner is which pro-smoking materials may serve to reflect, reinforce and ultimately reproduce smoking behaviours. Prior examinations have identified high levels of smoking imagery in graphic novels/ comics. This pattern was replicated in a specific examination of the noir crime genre of graphic novels/ comics. In order to explore this in further depth this research identified and analysed two art texts that specifically address how to draw in the noir graphic novel/ comic genre. This analysis revealed a substantial volume of smoking imagery, often positioned prominently and of a large size . Smoking was clearly integral to the characters from the initial scene setting and conception of the image. This analysis also identified portrayals of smoking associated with stereotypical images, such as those of macho males and seductive women, including the classic femme fatale trope. Recommendations to combat the potential impacts of such imagery are made.</p> Frank Houghton, Daisy Houghton ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 17 Sep 2023 13:22:44 +0200 The role of gut microbiome and its modification while regulating the defence mechanisms, particularly in severe COVID-19 cases <p><em>Introduction:</em> Related studies suggest that the gut microbiome influences the immune system's response to COVID-19 infection, and possibly its severity and outcome too.</p> <p><em>Aim:</em> We present the gut microbiome and its modifications, to explore their association to the severity of COVID-19 after coronavirus infection.</p> <p><em>Methods:</em> Search of national and international medical databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, MOB) using the keywords COVID-19, microbiome, dysbiosis, diseases and probiotic.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> Various viral infections have recently caused a significant number of diseases and deaths worldwide, and the microbiome’s role in regulating defence mechanisms is more and more ferequently demonstrated. Based on results of microbiome research to date, in dysbiosis the antiviral immune response is weakened, and probiotics enhance the intestinal mucosal barrier function against various viruses. Clinical trials demonstrated the changing microbiome in COVID-19 patients and suggest that the composition of the gut microbiome may probably be one of the strongest predictors of the severity of COVID-19.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> imbalance of the microbiome, immune system function and the severity of illness caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus are interrelated, thus the body’s ecosystem is an important component of our health and we must do everything we can to keep it intact.</p> Monika Fekete, Peter Balazs, Andrea Lehoczki, Judit Forrai, Norbert Dosa, Vince Fazekas-Pongor, Agnes Feher, Balint Madarasz, Janos Tamas Varga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 17 Sep 2023 13:44:02 +0200 Architecture for hospitals - thoughts inspired by the inauguration of a new building <p>There is no doubt that the architecture of hospitals have a considerable effect on the healing of patients and the resilience health care professionals. Even if there are general concepts, real scientific exploration of the topic is vastly lacking. For scientific research it will be important to examine the emotions of patients when confronted with the diverse influence factors on well-being in hospitals. Close collaboration of physicians, patients’ representatives, nursing scientists, medical psychologists and architectures is needed to create a scientific basis for the construction of healing hospitals.</p> Christoph Klawe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 17 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200