The essence of scientific research centers in Polish health resorts, unique establishments on the world scale is presented first of all. The structure of clinical pediatrics has been shown at the Medical Academy in Poznan since the early seventies of the twentieth century. The activities of the Scientific Research Center for the Diseases of the Children’s Respiratory System in Kolobrzeg of the Pediatric Clinic of the Medical Academy in Poznań, which has been operating for over forty years, have been widely analyzed. Its service and scientific activities are particularly highlighted. The role of professors Teodor Rafiński and Jerzy Alkiewicz in the development of this Center is mentioned.