Given the incidence and severity of acute intoxication, this issue is of considerable importance today for the Emergency Departments (ED). The neurodegenerative disorders are amongst the most dangerous diseases in modern society. At the end of 1990, adenosine receptor antagonists were used to block the adenosine A1 and A2A receptors causing less physical, cellular and molecular damage caused by Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. In recent years, an increase in death rate caused by these diseases has been observed among people under 74. Caffeine, as NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents an uncontrolled influx of calcium ions into the interior of the cells exerting a neuroprotective effect and beneficial procognitive effects. There is much evidence that caffeine intake is associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.