Chronic inflammation is characterized by excessive production of cytokines and eicosanoids and is associated with unsufficient resolution. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids may result in a lower incidence of many inflammatory diseases.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of α – linolenic acid (ALA) on the fatty acids profile of cell membranes and on the pro-inflammatory proteins cyclooxygenase – 2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 synthase (cPGES) and prostaglandin F2α receptor (FP) expression in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
It has been shown that COX-2, cPGES as well as FP receptor expression was highest in cells activated by LPS. In macrophages supplemented with ALA and activated with LPS a pro-inflammatory protein levels were significantly reduced, suggesting anti-inflammatory activity of α-linolenic acid. There were also statistically significant changes in the fatty acid profile after incubation of the RAW 264.7 cells for 48 hours with ALA.
A deficiency or excess of specific fatty acids affect the cellular membrane fluidity, can also cause changes in cell morphology. Therefore it is appropriate to carry out further research on the ALA properties.